NASA's Project Apollo spanned twelve years, from 1961-1972, and left a resounding impact on art, science, and human potential. Below find a timeline of the manned space missions, the space shuttles, and the crews that brought us unprecedented images capturing extraordinary feats of human exploration, imagination, and collaboration.

The Mercury Era

MERCURY REDSTONE 3

5 May 1961

Lot 101 Alan Shepard preparing to board Freedom 7 for launch | Lot 102 The historic liftoff of Freedom 7

CREW:  Alan Shepard

SPACECRAFT:  Freedom 7

LAUNCH VEHICLE:  Redstone

MISSION OVERVIEW:  Suborbital flight that successfully put the first American in space. The period of weightlessness lasted for approximately 5 minutes. 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Mercury Redstone 3 mission were an automatic 70 mm Maurer 220G camera with a General Scientific 75 mm f/2.8 Finitar lens and a Pilot Observer movie camera. Fllm: GAF Super Anscochrome T-100 Superior ASA 64 color reversal.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 15 minutes 22 seconds
Orbits completed: none
Range: 263.1 nautical miles (302.8 statute miles, 487.3 km)
Apogee: 101.2 nautical miles (116.5 statute miles, 187.5 km)

I think [my experience of being the first photographer from space] put to rest forever the idea that the astronaut is going to get so disconcerted by a camera being aboard that he or she is going to be taking pictures when they should be doing other things. Certainly during the emergencies of the flight I was not out taking pictures, jazzing around.

—John Glenn (Schick and Van Haaften, pg. 16)

I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish.

President John Kennedy (addressing Congress on May 25, 1961)

MERCURY REDSTONE 4

21 July 1961

Lot 104 The perfect launch of the Liberty 7 capsule carrying the second American in space Gus Grissom

CREW: Gus Grissom

SPACECRAFT: Liberty Bell 7

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Redstone

MISSION OVERVIEW: The MR-4 flight plan was very much the same as that for MR-3. The period of weightlessness lasted for approximately 5 minutes. Suborbital flight successful but the spacecraft sank shortly after splashdown. 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Mercury Redstone 4 mission were an automatic 70 mm Maurer 220G camera and a Pilot Observer movie camera. The film was not recovered as the spacecraft was lost during the post landing recovery period.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 15 minutes 37 seconds
Orbits completed: none
Range: 262.5 nautical miles (486.2 km)
Apogee: 102.8 nautical miles (190.3 km)

There is a clarity, a brilliance to space that simply doesn’t exist on Earth, even on a cloudless summer’s day in the Rockies, and from nowhere else can you realize so fully the majesty of our Earth and be so awed at the thought that it’s only one of untold thousands of planets.

—Gus Grissom (from his posthumous 1968 book, Gemini: A Personal Account of Man’s Venture Into Space, pg. 108)

MERCURY ATLAS 6

20 February 1962

Lot 107 The first image of a US astronaut in orbit: John Glenn in weightlessness inside Friendship 7 during the first US orbital mission

CREW: John Glenn

SPACECRAFT: Friendship 7

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Atlas D

MISSION OVERVIEW: The mission was successful. The first American in orbit. Total time weightless was 4 hours, 48 minutes, 27 seconds. During the flight only two major problems were encountered: (1) a yaw attitude control jet apparently clogged at the end of the first orbit, forcing the astronaut to abandon the automatic control system for the manual-electrical fly-by wire system; and (2) a faulty switch in the heat shield circuit indicated that the clamp holding the shield had been prematurely released - a signal later found to be false. During reentry, however, the retropack was not jettisoned but retained as a safety measure to hold the heat shield in place in the event it had loosened.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Mercury Atlas 6 mission were a NASA-modified 35mm Ansco Autoset camera with a 50 mm f/2.8 lens and a Pilot Observer movie camera. Film: Eastman Color Negative Film 5250.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 4 hours 55 minutes 23 seconds
Orbits completed: 3
Perigree altitude: 80 nautical miles (150 km)
Apogee altitude: 134 nautical miles (248 km)
Distance traveled: 65,763 nautical miles (121,793 km)

I think [my experience of being the first photographer from space] put to rest forever the idea that the astronaut is going to get so disconcerted by a camera being aboard that he or she is going to be taking pictures when they should be doing other things. Certainly during the emergencies of the flight I was not out taking pictures, jazzing around.

—John Glenn (Schick and Van Haaften, pg. 16)

MERCURY ATLAS 7

24 May 1962

Lot 108 Portrait of Mercury Original Seven Scott Carpenter, the second American in orbit

CREW: Scott Carpenter

SPACECRAFT: Aurora 7

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Atlas D

MISSION OVERVIEW: Spacecraft overshot intended target area by 250 nautical miles. Total time weightless was 4 hours, 39 minutes, 32 seconds. The performance of the Mercury spacecraft and Atlas launch vehicle was excellent in nearly every respect. All primary mission objectives were achieved. The flight further qualified the Mercury spacecraft systems for manned orbital operations and provided evidence for progressing into missions of extended duration and consequently more demanding systems requirements.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Mercury Atlas 7 mission were a 35mm Rebot Recorder 36 camera with a Schneider Xenar 45 mm f/2.8 lens, and a Pilot Observer movie camera. Film: Eastman Color Negative Film 5250.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 4 hours 56 minutes 5 seconds
Orbits completed: 3
Perigree altitude: 83 nautical miles (154 km)
Apogee altitude: 140 nautical miles (259 km)
Distance traveled: 76,021 nautical miles (122,344 km)

The spectacular novelty of the view from space challenged me to make the most of my opportunity, and lured me into an unwise expenditure of fuel early in the flight.

—Scott Carpenter (Mercury Atlas 7 Pilot’s Flight Report)

MERCURY ATLAS 8

3 October 1962

Lot 110 Space photography pioneer Walter Schirra and the Hasselblad space 500 C camera, first used on his Sigma 7 mission

CREW: Walter Schirra

SPACECRAFT: Sigma 7

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Atlas D

MISSION OVERVIEW: The mission was successful. Total time weightless was 8 hours, 56 minutes, 22 seconds.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Mercury Atlas 8 mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Hasselblad camera 500C with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens, and a Pilot Observer movie camera. Fllm: GAF Super Anscochrome D-200 color reversal.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 9 hours 13 minutes 15 seconds
Orbits completed: 6
Perigree altitude: 84 nautical miles (156 km)
Apogee altitude: 154 nautical miles (285 km)
Distance traveled: 143,983 statute miles

I talked to Ralph Morse and Carl Mydans [of LIFE] and to Ken Weaver, Otis Imboden, and Luis Marden of NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC about what cameras they would recommend. They all said, ‘Hasselblad, but for…’ _ but for this, but for that. The ‘but-fors’ were the discrepancies in the design_gear train problems, jamming, not a good fit, and this kind of thing. So on my first flight we took an off-the-shell Hasselblad and had all the ‘but-fors’ taken out.

—Walter Schirra (Schick and Van Haaften, pg. 20)

MERCURY ATLAS 9

15–16 May 1963

Lot 111 Launch of the historic first one-day and last solo flight of the US space program: Faith 7 mated to the Atlas rocket, Gordon Cooper preparing for his 22-orbit ride through space, liftoff

CREW: Gordon Cooper

SPACECRAFT: Faith 7

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Atlas D

MISSION OVERVIEW: The mission was successful. Total time weightless was 34 hours, 3 minutes, 30 seconds. The last Mercury mission completed 22 orbits to evaluate effects of one day in space.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Mercury Atlas 9 mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Hasselblad camera 500C with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens, a 35mm Rebot recorder 36 camera with a high speed lens system f/0.95, a Slow Scan TV camera, and a Pilot Observer movie camera. Film: GAF Ultraspeed Anscochrome FPC-289 D-200 color reversal (Hasselblad), Eastman Kodak infrared film (Hasselblad), Ansco H 529 ASA 200 (Robot Recorder 36).

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 1 day 10 hours 19 minutes 49 seconds
Orbits completed: 22
Perigree altitude: 88 nautical miles (163 km)
Apogee altitude: 143 nautical miles (265 km)
Distance traveled: 546,167 statute miles

It was great to be able to bring home some of those images to people who couldn’t be up there in orbit and see those kind of things. I think NASA finally swung around to realizing the importance of photography; even the diehards finally came around, admitting it had about the greatest impact of anything going.

—Gordon Cooper (Schick and Van Haaften, ppg. 26-30)

The Gemini Era

GEMINI III

23 March 1965

Lot 116 Earth horizon from space seen by the first Gemini astronauts

CREW: Gus Grissom and John Young

SPACECRAFT: Molly Brown

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: First crewed Gemini flight and first two-crew American spaceflight, three orbits.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini III mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Hasselblad camera 500C with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens, and a 16mm McDonnell sequence camera. Film: Kodak Ektachrome SO-217 medium speed ASA 64 color reversal.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 4 hours 52 minutes 31 seconds
Orbits completed: 3
Perigree altitude: 87 nautical miles (161 km)
Apogee altitude: 121 nautical miles (225 km)
Distance traveled: 80,000 miles (128,748 km)

“Our God-given curiosity will force us to go there [to the Moon] ourselves because in the final analysis, only man can fully evaluate the Moon in terms understandable to other men.”

—Gus Grissom (Jacobs, pg. 129)

GEMINI IV

3–7 June 1965

Lot 117 Launch of the first US spacewalk mission | Lot 122 Cover of LIFE: the first US spacewalk of Ed White over the Earth

CREW: James McDivitt and Edward White

SPACECRAFT: Gemini IV

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: Included first extravehicular activity (EVA) by an American; White’s “spacewalk” was a 22-minute EVA exercise on the third orbit.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini IV mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Hasselblad camera 500C with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens, a Zeiss Contarex 35mm camera with a 50mm Zeiss lens, and a 16 mm McDonnell sequence camera. Film: Kodak Ektachrome SO-217 medium speed ASA 64 color reversal (Hasselblad), GAF Anscochrome D-200 color (Contarex).

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 4 days 1 hour 56 minutes 12 seconds
Orbits completed: 62
Perigree altitude: 89 nautical miles (165 km)
Apogee altitude: 156 nautical miles (289 km)
Distance traveled: 1,398,800 nautical miles (2,590,600 km)

From the mission transcript:

Ed White:

"That was something. That was the most natural feeling, Jim."

James McDivitt:

"Yeah. I know it. You looked like you were in your mother’s womb."

GEMINI V

21–29 August 1965

Lot 128 Launch of the longest manned spaceflight to date, carrying Pete Conrad and Richard Gordon

CREW: Gordon Cooper and Pete Conrad

SPACECRAFT: Gemini V

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: First week-long spaceflight; first use of fuel cells for electrical power; evaluated guidance and navigation system for future rendezvous missions. Completed 120 orbits.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini V mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Hasselblad camera 500C with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens, a Zeiss Contarex 35mm camera with a 50mm Zeiss lens, and a 16 mm McDonnell. Film: Kodak Ektachrome SO-217 medium speed ASA 64 color reversal (Hasselblad), GAF Anscochrome. D-50 (Hasselblad).

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 7 days 22 hours 55 minutes 14 seconds
Orbits completed: 120
Perigree altitude: 92 nautical miles (170 km)
Apogee altitude: 180 nautical miles (330 km)
Distance traveled: 3,257,652  miles (5,242,682 km)

Many of the experiments in the Gemini missions, including photography, will be incorporated into the early Apollo Earth orbital flights, generally in a more sophisticated form. It is the goal of NASA to provide an integrated program of scientific investigation that uses both manned and unmanned spacecraft to complement each other in the important task of gaining knowledge of our universe.

NASA associate administrator George Muller (NASA SP-129, foreword)

GEMINI VII

4–18 December 1965

Lot 133 First Moonrise: Full Moon rising over the Earth horizon

CREW: Frank Borman and James Lovell

SPACECRAFT: Gemini VII

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: When the original Gemini VI mission was scrubbed because the launch of the Agena docking target failed, Gemini VII was used as the rendezvous target instead. Primary objective was to determine whether humans could live in space for 14 days.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini VII mission were a 70mm NASA-modified Hasselblad 500C camera fitted with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens and a telephoto 250mm Zeiss lens, and a 16mm Maurer sequence camera. Film: Eastman Kodak Ektachrome, MS (S.0. 217), Eastman Kodak Ektachrome, Infrared Type-8443, Eastman Kodak Pan-Atomic-X Type 3400.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 13 days 18 hours 35 minutes 01 second
Orbits completed: 206
Altitudes in nautical miles: Revs. 3 to 44 (120 to 174); Revs. 45 to 75 (128 to 171); Revs. 76 to 206 (161)
Distance traveled: 4,876,000 nautical miles (9,030,000 km)

GEMINI VI-A

15–16 December 1965

Lot 130 First rendezvous in space, at 17,000 mph: Gemini VII spacecraft orbiting the blue Earth

CREW: Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford

SPACECRAFT: Gemini VI-A

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: Rescheduled from October to rendezvous with Gemini VII after the original Agena Target Vehicle launch failed; renamed Gemini VI-A. First space rendezvous accomplished, station-keeping for over five hours at distances from 1 to 300 feet (0.3 to 91 m).

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini VI-A mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Hasselblad 500C camera fitted with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens, and two 16mm Maurer sequence cameras. Film: Eastman Kodak Ektachrome, MS (S.0. 217).

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 1 day 1 hour 51 minutes 24 seconds
Orbits completed: 16
Perigree altitude: 150 nautical miles (270 km)
Apogee altitude: 148 nautical miles (274 km)
Distance traveled: 374,954 nautical miles (694,415  km)

“I’ve always said we need to really show the American people and the rest of the world the beauty of space, what you can see there. I’m strictly an amateur, but the interest was so great that after seeing those space pictures my younger daughter, Karin, became an avid photographer.”

—Thomas Stafford (Schick and Van Haaften, pg. 48)

GEMINI VIII

16–17 March 1966

Lot 135 First photograph of an unmanned satellite from space: the Agena over the Earth

CREW: Neil Armstrong and David Scott

SPACECRAFT: Gemini VIII

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: Accomplished first docking with another space vehicle, an uncrewed Agena Target Vehicle. While docked, a Gemini spacecraft thruster malfunction caused near-fatal tumbling of the craft, which, after undocking, Armstrong was able to overcome; the crew effected the first emergency landing of a crewed U.S. space mission.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini VIII mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Hasselblad 500C camera fitted with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens, and a 16mm Maurer sequence camera. Film: Eastman Kodak Ektachrome, MS (S.0. 217).

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 10 hours 41 minutes 26 seconds
Orbits completed: 6
Initial Perigree: 87 nautical miles (161 km)
Initial Apogee: 146 nautical miles (270 km)
Circular: 161 nautical miles (298 km)
Distance traveled: 158,319 nautical miles (293,206 km)

GEMINI IX-A

3–6 June 1966

Lot 139 The Angry Alligator

CREW: Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan

SPACECRAFT: Gemini IX-A

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: Rescheduled from May to rendezvous and dock with the Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) after the original Agena Target Vehicle launch failed. The ATDA shroud did not completely separate, making docking impossible. Three different types of rendezvous and two hours of EVA were completed.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini IX-A mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Super-Wide-Angle Hasselblad camera fitted with a 38mm Zeiss-Biogon lens, a NASA-modified 70mm Hasselblad 500C camera fiited with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens, a 70mm Maurer Space Camera fitted with a 80mm Xenotar lens and two 16mm Maurer sequence cameras. Film: Eastman Kodak Ektachrome, MS (S.0. 217).

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 3 days 0 hours 20 minutes 50 seconds
Orbits completed: 44
Initial Perigree: 144 nautical miles (266 km)
Initial Apogee: 86 nautical miles (159 km)
Distance traveled: 1,091,113 nautical miles (2,020,741 km) 

“When you were photographing inside the Gemini spacecraft you had to wiggle down and photograph through a very small window. It was like looking through a tunnel.”

—Eugene Cernan (Schick and Van Haaften, pg. 13)

GEMINI X

18–21 July 1966

Lot 143 Recovery of the spacecraft in the Atlantic Ocean after three days in space

CREW: John Young and Michael Collins

SPACECRAFT: Gemini X

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: Docking with the Agena 10 and first use of the Agena Target Vehicle’s propulsion systems. The spacecraft also rendezvoused with the Agena 8 Target Vehicle from Gemini VIII. Collins had 49 minutes of EVA standing in the hatch and 39 minutes of EVA to retrieve experiments from the Agena 8; he demonstrated the ability of an astronaut to travel to another spacecraft and back.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini X mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Super-Wide-Angle Hasselblad camera fitted with a 38mm Zeiss-Biogon lens, a 70mm Maurer Space Camera fitted with a 80mm Xenotar lens and a 16mm Maurer sequence camera. Film: Eastman Kodak Ektachrome, MS (S.0. 217).

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 2 days 22 hours 46 minutes 39 seconds
Orbits completed: 43
Perigree altitude during revolutions 4-13: 161 nautical miles (298 km)
Apogee altitude during revolutions 4-13: 410 nautical miles (759 km)
Distance traveled: 1,063,079 nautical miles (1,968,823 km)

If you see something out the window that’s interesting and the Sun happens to be in the wrong position, that’s just too bad; you shoot anyway because it’s a very transient, rapidly changing world out there, and you can’t wait for the Sun to get in the right position.

—Michael Collins (Schick and Van Haaften, pg. 71)

It is somewhat paradoxical that man’s new ability to fly above the atmosphere and voyage in space has provided him with a new and valuable way to appreciate his Earth. From orbital altitudes the eye and lens do not see the emotions and passions that daily concern mankind on the surface. Economic, political, and sociological tensions are invisible. But the changes that both natural and human forces bring about on the Earth’s surface can best be grasped from the respectful distances inherent in Earth orbits.

NASA deputy administrator George Low (NASA SP-250, pg. IV.V)

GEMINI XI

12-15 September 1966

Lot 149 Richard Gordon’s “space cowboy” EVA riding the Gemini spacecraft

CREW: Pete Conrad and Richard Gordon

SPACECRAFT: Gemini XI

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: Gemini record altitude with apogee of 740 nautical miles (1,369 km) reached using the Agena Target Vehicle propulsion system after first orbit rendezvous and docking. Gordon made a 33-minute EVA and two-hour standup EVA.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini XI mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Super-Wide-Angle Hasselblad camera fitted with a 38mm Zeiss-Biogon lens, a 70mm Maurer Space Camera fitted with a 80mm Xenotar lens and a 16mm Maurer sequence camera. Film: Eastman Kodak Ektachrome, MS (S.0. 368).

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 2 days 23 hours 17 minutes 9 seconds
Orbits completed: 44
Orbit altitude during revolutions 1-25: 160 nautical miles (296 km)
Distance traveled: 1,071,050 miles (1,983,585 km)

I was very lucky with my Gemini flight. I was at the right place at the right time to get a lot of startling photographs.

—Richard Gordon (Schick and Van Haaften, pg. 79)

"When you get back… you will be a national hero. But your photographs… They will live forever. Your only key to immortality is the quality of your photography."

NASA chief of photography Richard Underwood (NASA JSC oral history)

GEMINI XII

11–15 November 1966

Lot 161 The first true spacewalker: Buzz Aldrin hanging at the Agena over the Earth

CREW: James Lovell and Buzz Aldrin

SPACECRAFT: Gemini XII

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Titan II

MISSION OVERVIEW: Final Gemini flight. Rendezvoused and docked manually with the target Agena and kept station with it during EVA. Aldrin set an EVA record of 5 hours and 30 minutes for one space walk and two stand-up exercises, and demonstrated solutions to previous EVA problems.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Gemini XII mission were a 70mm Super-Wide Hasselblad camera fitted with a 38mm Zeiss-Biogon lens, a 70mm Maurer Space Camera fitted with a 80mm Xenotar lens and a 16mm Maurer sequence camera. Film: Eastman Kodak Ektachrome, MS (S.0. 368).

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 3 days, 22 hours, 32 minutes and 33 seconds
Orbits completed: 59
Perigree altitude at revolution 1: 146 nautical miles (270 km)
Apogee altitude: 87 nautical miles (161 km)
Distance traveled: 1,390,362 miles (2,574,950 km)

The Apollo Era

Manned Space, Earth, and Cislunar Missions

Apollo 7 – Apollo 10

APOLLO 7

11–22 October 1968

Lot 176 The glorious launch of the first manned Apollo mission

CREW: Walter Schirra (Commander), Walter Cunningham (Lunar Module Pilot) and Donn Eisele (Command Module Pilot) 

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 7 CSM

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn IB

MISSION OVERVIEW: Earth orbital flight. Overall spacecraft systems operated as intended and expected. Temperatures were within acceptable limits, consumable usage was maintained at safe levels, communications were generally good, manual control of the spacecraft by the crew was good, and live television was successfully transmitted to ground stations seven times during the mission. Although the crew suffered from head colds and congestion during the mission, they performed satisfactorily and completed all photographic experiments. During the almost 11-day flight, eight planned maneuvers using the service propulsion system were successfully completed, and all major mission objectives were met.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Apollo 7 mission were a NASA-modified 70 mm Hasselblad 500 EL camera fitted with a standard 80mm f/2.8 standard Zeiss lens and two 16 mm Maurer sequence cameras with bayonet-mount 18 mm f/2 and 5 mm wide angle f/2 lenses. In addition to the still cameras, a 4.5-pound RCA B&W TV camera with a 160 degree wide-angle lens and a 9 degree lens was used to relay live TV pictures during the mission.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 10 days 20 hours 9 minutes 3 seconds
Orbits completed: 163
Perigree altitude: 125 nautical miles (231 km)
Apogee altitude: 160 nautical miles (297 km)
Distance traveled: 4,546,918 miles (7,317,556 km)

“We flew to the Moon as pathfinders for future Apollo missions. The first view of the Moon was mesmerizing, as we were aware that no other humans had seen the far side of the Moon directly.”

—Frank Borman (Jacobs, pg. 34)

APOLLO 8

21–27 December 1968

Lot 197 Earthrise: the majestic Earth emerging above the bleak lunar horizon

CREW: Frank Borman (Commander), James Lovell (Command Module Pilot) and William Anders (Lunar Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 8 CSM

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: The overall objective of the mission was to demonstrate Command and Service Module performance in a cislunar (between the Earth and Moon) and lunar-orbit environment, to evaluate crew performance in a lunar-orbit mission, to demonstrate communications and tracking at lunar distances, and to return high-resolution photography of proposed Apollo landing areas and other locations of scientific interest. The Apollo 8 mission took less than 7 days and included 10 orbits around the Moon. Almost without exception, spacecraft systems operated as intended. All temperatures varied in a predictable manner within acceptable limits, and consumables usage was always maintained at safe levels. Communications quality was exceptionally good, and live television was transmitted on six occasions. The crew superbly performed the planned mission.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Apollo 8 mission were two NASA-modified 70mm Hasselblad 500 EL cameras, with standard 80mm and telephoto 250mm Zeiss lens. For analytical purposes, B&W emulsions were determined to provide a higher degree of resolution and image clarity than the color emulsions; therefore, much of the photography is B&W. The mission also carried a 16mm Maurer data acquisition camera and a RCA B&W TV camera.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 6 days 3 hours 42 seconds
Moon orbits completed: 10

“We’ve always been accused of not being able to describe our flights adequately. Photography conveyed more to the viewer than we could say about them. In the beginning, NASA didn’t understand the image building value of photography in the space program. It took time for them to see the tremendous public interest in it. When any spacecraft came back, the first thing NASA did was develop the film. They would pick up the best ones and everyone would grab them up up and publish them.”

—James Lovell (Schick and Van Haaften, pg. 42)

APOLLO 9

3–13 March 1969

Lot 211 First US two-man spacewalk: Russell Schweickart on the porch of the LM Spider

CREW: James McDivitt (Commander), David Scott (Command Module Pilot) and Russell Schweickart (Lunar Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 9 (CSM Gumdrop and LM Spider)

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: Apollo 9 was the first manned flight of the Lunar Module and tested this portion of the spacecraft for lunar operations. During the ten-day Earth-orbital flight, the spacecraft demonstrated various important functions including a complete rendezvous and docking profile and extravehicular crew operations. This mission featured a number of firsts in spaceflight: the first manned Apollo docking, the first docked service propulsion systems burn, the first manned Apollo undocking, and the first manned LM to CSM docking. Another important highlight of this mission was the extravehicular activity (EVA) performed by Schweickart. 

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The Apollo 9 mission carried six NASA-modified 70mm Hasselblad 500 EL cameras with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens. Two individual cameras and a block of four cameras that made up the Lunar Multispectral Experiment. The mission also carried two 16mm Maurer data acquisition cameras and one B&W Westinghouse TV camera.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 10 days 1 hour 54 seconds
Earth orbits completed: 151
Perigree altitude: 110 nautical miles (204 km)
Apogee altitude: 268 nautical miles (497 km)
Distance travelled: 4,214,543 miles (6,782,649 km)

"With Mercury, space photography was born. With Gemini, it struggled toward maturity so that Apollo space photography would give you and me, indeed the whole world, an opportunity to reach out and practically touch the Moon.”

NASA chief of photography, Richard Underwood (NASA JSC oral history)

APOLLO 10

18–26 May 1969

Lot 215 Liftoff to the Moon | Lot 233 The iconic portrait of the first explorers of another world: astronauts Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin

CREW: Thomas Stafford (Commander), John Young (Command Module Pilot) and Eugene Cernan (Lunar Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 10 (CSM Charlie Brown and LM Snoopy)

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: This mission was the “dress rehearsal” for the first lunar landing. Apollo 10 entered orbit around the Moon and the Lunar Module was separated from the spacecraft to descend to within 9 miles of the lunar surface with two astronauts on board. The astronauts tested the Lunar Module’s radar and ascent engine and surveyed the landing site for Apollo 11. The LM was then returned to orbit where the crew successfully performed all required rendezvous maneuvers. The mission also served as a test of the extensive new Apollo tracking and control network on Earth. Spacecraft systems performance was satisfactory and all mission objectives were accomplished.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The onboard cameras for the Apollo 10 mission were two NASA-modified Hasselblad 500 EL cameras, with standard 80mm and telephoto 250mm Zeiss lenses. For analytical purposes, B&W emulsions were determined to provide a higher degree of resolution and image clarity than the color emulsions; therefore, much of the photography is B&W. There were a total of 1436 Hasselblad exposures made on 9 magazines of film (B&W magazines 28/O, 29/P, 30/Q, 31/R, 32/S, 33/T; color magazines 27/N, 34/M, 35/U), 1021 images on B&W film and 415 on color film. The mission also carried two 16mm Maurer data acquisition cameras and one color TV Westinghouse camera.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 8 days 3 minutes 23 seconds
Moon orbits completed: 31

“I could look at this great view for hours and try to capture the meaning of it all. I thank God I had the opportunity to fly this incredible mission with my fellow crew members and see the sights that only few in the history of the planet have ever seen.”

—Thomas Stafford (Jacobs, pg. 53)

Manned Space Lunar Orbit & Surface Missions

The Discovery of a New World, Apollo 11 – Apollo 14

APOLLO 11

16–24 1969

Lot 246 Orbital sunrise over Tranquility Base

CREW: Neil Armstrong (Commander), Michael Collins (Command Module Pilot), Buzz Aldrin (Lunar Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 11 (CSM Columbia and LM Eagle)

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: First manned lunar landing mission and lunar surface EVA. 1 EVA of 2 hours, 31 minutes. Flag and instruments deployed; unveiled plaque on the LM descent stage with inscription: “Here Men From Planet Earth First Set Foot Upon the Moon. July 1969 A.D. We Came In Peace For All Mankind.” Lunar surface stay time 21.6 hours; 59.5 hours in lunar orbit, with 30 orbits. LM ascent stage left in lunar orbit. 20 kg (44 lbs) of material gathered.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The Apollo 11 mission carried three 70mm Hasselblad cameras. Two of the 500ELs were identical to the ones carried on the Apollo 8, 9 and 10 flights. Each had its own standard Zeiss Planar f-2.8/80 mm lens. A Zeiss Sonnar f-5.6/250 mm telephoto lens was also carried. One of the conventional 500ELs, along with the telephoto lens and two extra magazines, was in the Apollo 11 Command Module throughout the flight. The other conventional 500EL, and two extra magazines as well, were placed in the Lunar Module. Also in the Lunar Module - and making its first journey in space - was a Hasselblad 500EL Data Camera with a 60mm Zeiss-Biogon lens, which was the one to be used on the Moon’s surface. Apollo 11 also carried two 16mm Maurer data acquisition cameras, one 35-mm lunar surface close-up stereoscopic Kodak camera, a color Westinghouse TV camera for use inside the Command Module and a B&W Westinghouse TV camera for use on the lunar surface.The Apollo 9 mission carried six NASA-modified 70mm Hasselblad 500 EL cameras with a standard 80mm Zeiss lens. Two individual cameras and a block of four cameras that made up the Lunar Multispectral Experiment. The mission also carried two 16mm Maurer data acquisition cameras and one B&W Westinghouse TV camera.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 8 days, 3 hours, 18 minutes
Lnding site: Sea of Tranquility
Landing coordinates: 0.67409 degrees North, 23.47298 degrees East

"In my own view, the important achievement of Apollo was a demonstration that humanity is not forever chained to this Planet, and our visions go rather further than that, and our opportunities are unlimited."

—Neil Armstrong (1999 press conference for the 30th anniversary of the Moon landing)

APOLLO 12

14–24 November 1969

Lot 310 Pete Conrad and Surveyor III robot spacecraft with Ocean of Storms Base in the background

CREW: Pete Conrad (Commander), Richard Gordon (Command Module Pilot), Alan Bean (Lunar Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 12 (CSM Yankee Clipper and LM Intrepid)

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: Retrieved parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3, which had landed on the Moon in April 1967. Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) deployed. 34kg (75 lbs) of material gathered. Two EVAs totaling 7 hours 50 minutes. Lunar surface stay-time, 31.5 hours; in lunar orbit 89 hours, with 45 orbits. LM ascent stage (purposefully) impacted on Moon (after surface crew returns to orbit).

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The Apollo 12 mission carried seven 70mm Hasselblad cameras. Three individual cameras (one Hasselblad 500 EL with various Zeiss lenses (standard 80mm, telephoto 250mm and telephoto 500mm) for use in the Command Module and two Hasselblad data cameras with a 60mm Zeiss-Biogon lens for use in the LM and on the lunar surface) and a block of four cameras that made up the Lunar Multispectral Experiment. The mission also carried two 16mm Maurer data acquisition cameras and two color Westinghouse TV cameras.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 10 days, 4 hours, 36 minutes
Landing site: Ocean of Storms
Landing coordinates: 3.01381 degrees South, 23.41930 degrees West

“I don’t think any of us ever tired of looking out the window and watching the world or the Moon go by. One of the best things that our photography has done is come close to giving people down here an idea of what the hell it looks like from up there.” 

—Pete Conrad (Schick and Van Haaften, pg. 40)

APOLLO 13

11–17 April 1970

Lot 324 NASA's finest hour: safe splashdown and recovery of Apollo 13 in the Pacific Ocean

CREW: James Lovell (Commander), Jack Swigert (Command Module Pilot), Fred Haise (Lunar Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 13 (CSM Odyssey and LM Aquarius)

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: Third lunar landing attempt. Mission aborted after rupture of service module oxygen tank. Apollo 13 had a full roster of activities scheduled in addition to lunar surface activities (experiments, sampling, etc.) and photography. After the accident, virtually all activities were related to returning quickly and safely to Earth with a slingshot around the Moon. Classed as “successful failure” because of experience in rescuing crew. Spent upper stage successfully impacted on the Moon.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The camera equipment carried by Apollo 13 consisted of two 70-mm Hasselblad EL cameras with 80 and 250mm Zeiss lenses, two 70-mm Hasselblad data cameras with 60mm Zeiss-Biogon lenses, two 16mm Maurer data acquisition cameras (DAC) with various lenses, one 35mm lunar surface close-up stereoscopic Kodak camera, one B&W Westinghouse TV camera, two color Westinghouse TV cameras and one Hycon topographic camera. However, camera use was limited to one 70-millimeter Hasselblad EL camera, one 70mm Hasselblad data camera, the 16-millimeter DACs (and a color TV camera before the explosion of the oxygen tank). The intervals and times of photography were recorded by the crew and were not tied to the onboard data systems.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 5 days, 22 hours, 54 minutes
Earth orbits completed: 151
Perigree altitude: 110 nautical miles (204 km)
Apogee altitude: 268 nautical miles (3497 km)
Distance travelled: 622,268 miles (1,001,44 km)

“Looking at the mission rules, and I knew it already without looking, we couldn’t even go into lunar orbit. So the mission was gone, right there.”

Fred Haise (Chaikin, Voices, pg. 135)

APOLLO 14

31 January – 9 February 197

Lot 334 The LM Antares reflecting a jewel-like circular flare

CREW: Alan Shepard (Commander), Stuart Roosa (Command Module Pilot), Edgar Mitchell (Lunar Module Pilot)James McDivitt (Commander), David Scott (Command Module Pilot) and Russell Schweickart (Lunar Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 14 (CSM Kitty Hawk and LM Antares)

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: ALSEP and other instruments deployed. Lunar surface stay-time, 33.5 hours; 67 hours in lunar orbit, with 34 orbits. 2 EVAs of 9 hours, 25 minutes. Third stage impacted on Moon. 42 kg (94 lbs) of materials gathered, using hand cart for first time to transport rocks.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: Apollo 14 carried a number of cameras for collecting data and recording various aspects of the mission. Two 70mm Hasselblad EL cameras with multiple Zeiss lenses (80mm, 250mm and 500mm), one 16mm Maurer camera with various lenses, a Westinghouse color TV camera and the Hycon Lunar Topographic camera were carried on the Command Module. The Lunar Module carried two 70mm Hasselblad Data cameras with 60mm Zeiss-Biogon lenses, two 16mm Maurer data-acquisition cameras (one with a 10mm lens and one with a 5mm lens), one Westinghouse color TV camera, one B&W Westinghouse back-up TV camera and the 35mm lunar surface close-up stereoscopic Kodak camera.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 9 days, 2 minutes
Landing site: Fra Mauro
Landing Coordinates: 3.64544 degrees south, 17.47139 degrees West

“You’re proud of what you’re doing. I mean you’re proud of the fact that, hey, I made it to the Moon. And then you look back out and you see this little bitty Earth back there, and you see all that darkness, and you also feel pretty humble at the same time.”

—Stuart Roosa (Chaikin, Voices, pg.106)

The Great Voyages of Exploration

Apollo 15 – Apollo 17

APOLLO 15

26 July – 7 August 1971

Lot 346 David Scott driving the Lunar Rover

CREW: David Scott (Commander), James Irwin (Lunar Module Pilot), Alfred Worden (Command Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 15 (CSM Endeavour and LM Falcon)

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: 3 EVAs of 18 hours, 30 minutes plus 33-minute Stand-up EVA. First mission to carry orbital sensors in service module of CSM. ALSEP deployed. Scientific payload landed on Moon doubled. Improved spacesuits gave increased mobility and stay-time. Lunar surface stay- time, 66.9 hours. Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), electric-powered, 4-wheel drive car, traversed total 27.9 km (17 mi). In lunar orbit 145 hours, with 74 orbits. Small subsatellite left in lunar orbit for first time. 76.6 kgs (169 lbs) of material gathered. Worden performed 38-minute transearth EVA.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The camera equipment operated on the lunar surface or in the LM by astronauts Scott and Irwin included three 70mm Hasselblad Data Cameras (two with 60mm Zeiss-Biogon lenses and one equipped with a 500mm Zeiss telephoto lens), a 16mm Maurer Data Acquisition Camera (DAC), and a color RCA lunar surface TV camera. The main photographic tasks in the Command Module during orbit were performed with the Fairchild Mapping Camera System and the Itek Panoramic Camera, which were in the SIM bay. Various tasks were also accomplished using four Command Module cameras: a 70mm Hasselblad 500EL camera (with standard 80mm lens, 105mm UV lens and telephoto 250mm lens), a 16mm Maurer DAC, a 35mm Nikon, and a Westinghouse color TV camera.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 12 days, 17 hours, 12 minutes
Landing site: Hadley-Apennine region near Apennine Mountains
Landing coordinates: 26.13224 degrees North, 3.63400 degrees East

“Our destiny, at that time, was to go to the Moon. In fact, probably one of the clearest definitions of an objective or a destiny that mankind has ever experienced has been ‘Man, Moon, 1970’. How could it be any clearer than that?”

—David Scott (Chaikin, Voices, pg. 183)

APOLLO 16

16–27 April 1972

Lot 386 Charles Duke's inspection of North Ray Crater's rim and Outhouse Rock, station 11

CREW: John Young (Commander), Ken Mattingly (Command Module Pilot), Charles Duke (Lunar Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 16 (CSM Casper and LM Orion)

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: First study of highlands area. Selected surface experiments deployed, ultraviolet camera/spectrograph used for first time on Moon, and LRV used for second time. LRV traversed 26.7 km. Three EVAs totaling 20 hours 14 minutes. 95.8 kg (213 lbs) of lunar samples collected. Lunar surface stay-time, 71 hours; in lunar orbit 126 hours, with 64 orbits. Subsatellite released in lunar orbit. Mattingly performed 1-hour trans-Earth EVA.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The camera equipment operated on the lunar surface or in the LM by astronauts Young and Duke included three 70mm Hasselblad Data Cameras (two with 60mm Zeiss-Biogon lenses and one equipped with a 500mm Zeiss telephoto lens), a 16mm Maurer Data Acquisition Camera (DAC), and a color RCA lunar surface TV camera. The main photographic tasks in the Command Module during orbit were performed with the Fairchild Mapping Camera System and the Itek Panoramic Camera, which were in the SIM bay. Various tasks were also accomplished using four Command Module cameras: a 70mm Hasselblad 500EL camera (with standard 80mm lens, 105mm UV lens and telephoto 250mm lens), a 16mm Maurer DAC, a 35mm Nikon, and a Westinghouse color TV camera.

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 11 days, 1 hour, 51 minutes
Landing site: Descartes Highlands
Landing coordinates: 8.97341 degrees South, 15.49859 degrees East

“The Moon was the most spectacular beautiful desert you could ever imagine. Unspoilt. Untouched. It had a vibrancy about it, and the contrast between it and the black sky was so vivid, it just created this impression of excitement and wonder.”

—Charles Duke, 2007 (Byzony, pg. 164)

APOLLO 17

7–79 December 1972

Lot 394 The dramatic night launch of the last human voyage the Moon

CREW: Eugene Cernan (Commander), Ronald Evans (Command Module Pilot), Harrison Schmitt (Lunar Module Pilot)

SPACECRAFT: Apollo 17 (CSM America and LM Challenger)

LAUNCH VEHICLE: Saturn V

MISSION OVERVIEW: Last lunar landing mission. Three EVAs of 22 hours, 4 minutes total duration. First scientist-astronaut to land on Moon, Schmitt. Sixth automated research station set up. LRV traverse total 30.5 km. 110.4 kg (243 lbs) of material gathered. Lunar surface stay-time, 75 hours. (CSM) in lunar orbit 148 hours, with 75 orbits. Evans performed trans-Earth EVA lasting 1 hour 6 minutes.

CAMERAS AND ACCESSORIES: The camera equipment operated on the lunar surface or in the LM by astronauts Cernan and Schmitt included three 70mm Hasselblad Data Cameras (two with 60mm Zeiss-Biogon lenses and one equipped with a 500mm Zeiss telephoto lens), a 16mm Maurer Data Acquisition Camera (DAC), and a color RCA lunar surface TV camera. The main photographic tasks in the Command Module during orbit were performed with the Fairchild Mapping Camera System and the Itek Panoramic Camera, which were in the SIM bay. Various tasks were also accomplished using four Command Module cameras: a 70mm Hasselblad 500EL camera (with standard 80mm lens, 105mm UV lens and telephoto 250mm lens), a 16mm Maurer DAC, a 35mm Nikon, and a Westinghouse color TV camera. 

MISSION PARAMETERS:
Duration: 12 days, 13 hours, 52 minutes
Landing site: Taurus-Littrow, highlands and valley area
Landing coordinates: 20.18809 degrees North, 30.77475 degrees East

“We took a lot of documentation pictures because we were supposed to. But a lot of photographs were taken on instinct _ things you can’t predict you’re going to see or that are going to impress you. [...] Those ‘stand-back’ pictures were taken also with aesthetics in mind, to capture and document the venture itself.”

Eugene Cernan (Schick and Van Haaften, introduction)

One Giant Leap for Mankind: Vintage Photographs from the Victor Martin-Malburet Collection

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